|1. Introduction||ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM, previously known as CIBACHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM, is a direct-positive working colour material based on silver-dye bleach technology.|
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is balanced for tungsten light. Due to its extremely fine grain it offers very high resolution and acutance. Its contrast and colour saturation are optimised for microfilming or reproducing copies from colour reflection originals such as maps, drawings, schematics, catalogues, prints, etc.
Two versions exist for specific applications: Type M and Type P which differ in contrast. Type M, a high contrast film, suitable especially for the reproduction of reflection originals whereas Type P, with a lower contrast value, is used for reproducing transparent originals or as a duplicating film.
Colour slides can be reproduced at original or reduced scale. For some critical applications and originals with a large tonal range it may be necessary to apply contrast masking.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is available on 4-mil (0.10mm) and 7-mil (0.18mm) polyester base for high flexibility and excellent dimensional stability.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is processed by the user in ILFOCHROME Process P-5. This relatively uncritical 3-bath process equal sequences for development, bleach and fix. Manual tank or dish processing as well as replenishment machine processing are possible.
In addition ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM offers extremely high archival stability resistance to light fading.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM finds its main application in microfilming of coloured reflection originals. Contrast and colour saturation have been adjusted to provide optimum results for this application.
|3. Sensitivity and exposure||ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is balanced for a colour temperature of 3200°K, i.e. for exposure with tungsten-halogen lamps. It must be handled in total darkness.|
The appropriate effective speed is rated below 1 ASA. This relatively low speed value is due to the fact that ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is a silver-dye bleach material where all dyes are incorporated in the emulsion layers during manufacture and to not have to be generated during processing. During exposure these dyes absorb part of the light. On the other hand, this layer structure accounts for the high acutance, the excellent archival stability and high resistance to light fading, characteristic of ILFOCHROME material.
In most cases only marginal filtration is required to match the original colours. In addition to colour filtration, a UV filter should always be used. When exposing with other light sources then tungsten-halogen, higher filterations may be required. Pulsed xenon light, for example, can be used with equal good results if the filtration is adjusted accordingly.
When reproducing originals of the size DIN A4 (8¼x11¾ inches) they should be illuminated with about 1500 - 2000 watts of tungsten-halogen light. For larger size originals the wattage should be increased proportionally.
Microfilm or microfiche cameras have to be equipped with a variable- speed shutter to allow for exposure time adjustment. Under the above- mentioned conditions, exposure times between ½ and 1 second are typical for reproducing a DIN A4 format to a 25x reduced microfiche format.
With the recommended exposure and illumination conditions the speed of this film is such that ideal exposure times results for all reproduction and duplication work.
When preparing masters for subsequent contact duplication onto the same film material, under-exposure of the master by ½ stop is recommended.
As a guide, the following corrections for reciprocity failure should be made:
Exposure time (seconds)1/8 ½ 2 8 32 256
Lens stop adjustment 0 0 +¼ +½ +¾ +1
Storage of unexposed material
All photographic materials undergo undesirable changes of their sensitometric characteristic if exposed to high temperature and humidity.
Where ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM is to be kept for short periods of up to two months, it should be stored away from chemicals and processing solutions in a well-ventilated room at a temperature not exceeding 20°C (68°F).
If the films are to be kept for longer periods, they should be stored at or below 10°C (50°F) in a refrigerator, or as low as -18°C (0°F) in a freezer.
Films that have been stored in a freezer or refrigerator must be allowed to equilibrate at room temperature before opening the sealed plastic envelope, in order to avoid condensation on the cold film. This adaptation takes 2 to 4 hours or longer, depending on the storage temperature. It is good practice to let the materials adjust to ambient temperature over night. Never try to accelerate the warming-up process by using a hot air drier or by placing the packs of cold film in a warm drying cabinet.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHICS FILM can only be processed in ILFOCHROME Process P-5. Processing can easily be carried out by the user.
Charting the measured data permits early recognition of possible deviation and thus to take corrective measures before the quality of the processing begins to suffer. The ILFORD process control chart can be used to display the results of Process P-5.
|5. Handling of the chemicals||The developer and the fixer of the Process P-5 for CIBACHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM are very similar to the corresponding solution of black-and-white photographic process. Do not swallow these solutions, keep them out of reach of children. Avoid spilling and keep the processing equipment clean.|
The developer is an alkaline solution, the bleach is strong acidic. Both solutions are harmful to the eyes, goggles are recommended, especially when handling the concentrates. If solution gets into eyes, wash immediately with plenty of running water (eyes have to be forced open), then seek medical attention.
If bleach gets onto skin or clothing, wash immediately with soap and water.
The ready-to-use working solution of the bleach solution contains about 3.4% of sulphuric acid, the concentrate part A about 29%. This acid must be neutralised before the exhausted bleach is discarded together with waste water (provided the local laws allow this procedure). In a correctly replenished processor the overflows are automatically adjusted to provide a neutral effluent at a pH value of about 7.0. In tray processing, or when using total loss processor the solution can be neutralised by mixing equal volumes of exhausted developer and exhausted bleach solution. The resulting pH will be about 6.6 to 6.7. By adding 35 ml of Neutraliser NE-22 per litre of solution, a pH value of 7.0 is obtained.
When neutralising in an open container, a vessel with the double content of volumes of exhausted bleach and developer should be used because the mixture may effervesce. Pour the developer into the neutralising vessel, then add the bleach in small portions under constant agitation with a stirring rod. Harmless carbon dioxide gas is formed under effervescence. The solution should be allowed to react under occasional stirring for about one hour. Do not close the vessel. If the procedure is reversed, i.e. the developer is added to the bleach, less effervescence is produced, but there is a risk that, in addition to the harmless carbon dioxide, poisonous sulphur dioxide may be generated.
If there is no developer available to neutralise the bleach, neutralising chemicals can be added instead. Sodium carbonate (washing soda), sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) or the liquid Neutraliser NE-22 available from ILFORD can be added. These chemicals are added to neutralising vessel in place of the exhausted developer and the bleach is added as described above. When using the chemicals in powder form a reaction time of more then one hour may be required. The pH of the reaction mixture can be checked with commercially available pH paper and adjusted to pH 7.0 if necessary. To neutralise 1 litre of exhausted bleach the following amount of chemicals are necessary:
Sodium carbonate 60 to 70 g or Sodium bicarbonate 100 to 120 g or Neutraliser NE-22 300 ml
For reasons of environmental protection it is strongly recommended that the exhausted fix be treated in a silver recovery unit. The de-slivered fix can then be added to the other neutralised solutions. Under no circumstances must be mixed with un-neutralised bleach. This would generate large amounts of poisonous sulphur dioxide gas and precipitate of solid sulphur would form.
Waste solution data for ILFOCHROME Process P-5
Like all ILFOCHROME processes, Process P-5 comprises a developer which contains the ecologically well compatible developing agents hydroquinone and phenidone, and not a paraphenylenediamine derivative like the chromogenic developers.
The substance in the leach bath characteristics for ILFOCHROME processes is sulphuric acid. However, this acid is neutralised by the carbonate and sulphite of the developer, so that the machine effluent has a pH of 6.9 to 7.0 (the pH of the undiluted mixture of the bleach and the developer is 6.6 to 6.7).*
In the tables below, the composition of the individual bath overflows is listed. This may vary slightly, depending on the working conditions. About 10% of each overflow is carried-over directly into the wash water. The total water volume amounts normally to about 100 to 400 litres per square meter (9 to 37 litres per sq. ft.), depending on the machine load** (30 to 40 l/m2 or 3 to 4 l/sq.ft. at hypothetical machine load of 100%). This large water volume is necessary for high archival stability.
In addition, the chemicals and biological oxygen demand, COD and BOD5 respectively, are listed. This is a measure of the oxygen consumption which is necessary to decompose the chemicals contained in the effluents.
The fixing bath can be de-silvered with the usual electrolytical silver recovery methods. On account of its high pH and high iodide content extremely low residual silver values of 2 to 20 mg/l, depending on the installation, are obtained. The electrolytical silver recovery is more efficient with ILFOCHROME fixers then with conventional black-and-white fixing baths.
Volume and composition of the various overflows
Volume per square meter 440 ml
Volume per square foot 41 ml
Carbonate ion 15 g/l
Sulphite ion 20 g/l
Hydroquinone 4 - 5 g/l
Hydroquinone sulphonater 1 - 2 g/l
Phenidone derivative 0.5 g/l
Antifogging agent 0.5 g/l
Water softening agent 4 g/l
Water miscible solvent 50 g/l
pH value 9.5
* For neutralising the bleach separately see preceding chapter: "Handling of the Chemicals".
**Ration of the actual machine load to the theoretical possible load. In normal operation, the machine load is between about 10 to 25%.
Volume per square meter 440 ml
Volume per square foot 41 ml
Sulphuric acid 35-40 g/l
Bisulphate ion 5-10 g/l
Aromatic nitro compound 2 g/l
Organic bleach catalyst 2 g/l
Organic anti-oxidant 3 - 6 g/l
Oxidised anti-oxidant 1 - 3 g/l
Iodide ion 10 g/l
Dyestuff fragments < 1 g/l
Water miscible solvent 50 g/l
pH value below 1
Volume per square meter 540 ml
Volume per square foot 50 ml
Ammonium ion 55 g/l
Thiosulphate ion 190 g/l
Sulphite and bisulphite ion 20 g/l
Silver (in form of a thiosulphate complex) 4 - 5 g/l
Water softening agent 0.3 g/l
pH value 6.5
Volume per square meter 100 - 400 litres
Volume per square foot 9 - 37 litres
a) about 40 ml of each bath per square meter, before adding the solution overflows;
b) 440 ml of developer + 440 ml of bleach + 540 ml of fix per square meter after adding the solution overflows.
Chemical and biological oxygen demand:
Bath COD BOD5
Developer DE-5 111 g O/litre 12-17 g O/litre
Bleach 112 g O/litre about 1 g O/litre
Fix FX-5 112 g O/litre about 2.5 g O/litre
Total wash water at 20% machine load 0.7-1 g O/litre 0.02-0.03 g O/litre
Total wash water per square meter 159 g O/litre 7-9 g O/litre
Total wash water per square foot 15 g O/sq.ft. 0.7-0.9 g O/sq.ft.
|6. Sensitometric and physical data||The following data and curves show typical results for ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM Type M and Type P, respectively, obtained by exposure with tungsten-halogen light and processing in Process P-5.|
The sensitometric data may vary slightly from batch to batch. The data below can therefore not be interpreted as specification or standard which must be met by ILFORD. Product characteristic may be changed or improved at any time.
Practical applications under different conditions may also lead to slightly different results.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM Type M ___Type P
Effective speed at 3200°K 0.2-0.5 ASA 0.4-0.8 ASA
Resolving power (target contrast 1000:1) 365 lp/mm 325 lp/mm
Diffuse RMS granularity 6 9
Modulation transfer at 100 lp/mm 55% 53%
Maximum density 2.3 2.15
Contrast (midrange tonal reproduction) 2.0 1.4
Projector light fastness: Decrease of integral density at initial density D=1.0 is less then 3% after 107 lux-hours of continuous irradiation in a projector.
Natural light fastness: Decrease of integral density at initial density D=1.0 is less then 0.2% units after exposure to radiant energy of 5x104 joules/cm2
High temperature storage: After 300 days at 77°C/40% RH the density loss at initial density D=1.0 amounts to about 0.02 units, and the yellow stain increases by about 0.03 units
Dimensional stability: The hysteresis of 0.10 mm (=4 mil) material after a humidity cycle of (40-90-40) percent RH amounts to 0.02%
|7. Availability||Light sensitive materials|
RSK30 = 35 mm x 30 m spool
CP2P = 2-inch plastic core
CC76 = 76 mm iner diameter cardboard core
DPP- Double Perforated
* Special Order only
Process control strips
TEST T5 35 mm x 30 cm box of 30 strips
|8. Re-enlargements||Re-enlarged prints from ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM can be produced on ILFOCHROME COPY paper.|
Many applications require blowbacks from either 35 mm roll film or microfiche to the original scale. ILFOCHROME COPY Paper is suitable for this purpose. It is compatible with ILFOCHROME Process P-5, so that microfilm or microfiches as well as subsequent blowbacks can be processed in the same equipment.
The compatibility of these two product groups opens a wide variety of practical applications where storage in microform is required on the one hand and copies in the original scale are desired during subsequent steps.
ILFOCHROME COPY paper, normally processed in ILFOCHROME Process P-22, is compatible with Process P-5, but not vice versa.
ILFOCHROME MICROGRAPHIC FILM cannot be processed in ILFOCHROME COPY Process P-22, but only in Process P-5.